Sunday, July 3, 2011

Sejarah Berdirinya Negara Amerika Serikat

The history of the founding of the United States (USA / United States of America) is interesting to note because America is the world's super power which controls the economy, military, and technological world.
United States located in the middle of the North American continent, bordered by Canada to the north and Mexico to the south. Country United States stretches from the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast to the Pacific Ocean on the west coast, including the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean, the state of Alaska on the northern tip of the Americas, and several other territories.

The first settler in what is now the United States came from Asia about 15,000 years ago. They crossed the Bering land bridge into Alaska. Furthermore, Native Americans settled in the region for thousands of years. In 1492, Christopher Columbus reached America. English people then settled in Jamestown, Virginia in 1607. These settlements are considered as the first settlements in the United States. Furthermore, the United States continues visited by English people. French, Spanish, and Dutch also settled in some of the United States. The development of British colonies end up not good for Native Americans, because many of those who died from the disease, and they lost their country.
United States formed from 13 former British colonies after the American Revolution after the declaration of independence on July 4, 1776. This war started because the colonists felt unfairly treated by the British.

After the Revolution, the United States face many problems, like slavery. In the 1800s, the U.S. gained a lot of territory and began terindustralisasi. From 1861 until 1865, the American Civil War raged between the North and South. This war was caused by disputes over states' rights, slavery, and the future of the United States. Several Southern states left the United States and founded the Confederacy.

North won the war, and countries that have left the union returned to the United States. This country and then through a period of reconstruction. In the late 1800s, many Europeans came to the United States and work in large factories. At the beginning of the 20th century, the U.S. became a world power. Its economy is one of the largest in the world. The country is also involved in World War I and II.

After World War II, the United States engaged in the Cold War with the Soviet Union. During the Cold War, the government spent a lot of money for defense. U.S. involvement in the Korean War and Vietnam, and also sent Neil Armstrong and other Americans into space. In 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed and the cold war ended. Middle East becomes important for Americans, especially after the September 11 attacks of 2001. Now, the United States is a superpower, but still faces some problems.
Pre-Columbian
The ancestors of American natives came from Asia. They crossed the Bering land bridge into Alaska.
Bering land bridge, also known as Beringia, was a land bridge. At the furthest line from north to south, approximately 1,600 km in length, linking eastern Siberia with Alaska now at various times during the ice age Pleistosin. Beringia is not covered with ice because the snow fell very slightly due to winds which blow from the southwest Pacific Ocean has lost most of its water vapor above the Mountains of Alaska that are fully covered with snow.
Selanjutnya..
Bering Strait, the Chukchi Sea to the north and the Bering Sea in the south, are all shallow seas (map, right). On a global cooling cycle, as happened most recently in the ice age, there are quite a lot of sea water are concentrated in the tops of ice in the Arctic and Antarctica so that a uniform reduction in sea level (eustatic) exposing the shallow seabed. Other land bridges around the world have formed and re-covered with sea water in the same way: approximately 14,000 years ago, mainland Australia well connected with New Guinea and Tasmania, is an extension of the British Isles from mainland Europe via the English Channel, and dried Sea basin South China connecting Sumatra, Java and Borneo to mainland Asia.
Pre-Columbian period is the period before the arrival of Christopher Columbus to America in 1492. At that time, Native Americans settled in the United States. They have different cultures: natives of the eastern United States to hunt; indigenous people in the United States northwest of fishing; natives of the southwestern corn planting and building a house called the pueblo, and the natives of the Great Plains to hunt bison.

Indian tribes

The Indians were the first settlers of North America from Asia over 20,000 years ago. Because it follows the game, they wandered through the Bering Strait (formerly the isthmus, is now separating Asia and North America). Gradually, they settle and develop into various tribes. Centuries they built the community regularly. In the 16th century, Europeans arrived in North America for the first time. Thinking that arrived in India (Asia), they mistakenly call it the natives "Indians". The Europeans wanted the land. Therefore the existence of indigenous peoples are threatened. The Indians then fought against the new settlers. In the 19th century, the Indians against the government of the United States is trying to evict them. Through a fierce struggle, the Indians moved to the reserves, special areas for them. Until now, many Indians still live there.

Zaman kolonial

The British tried to establish settlements on Roanoke Island in 1585, but did not last long. In 1607, the first English settlement to survive standing in Jamestown, Virginia. This settlement was founded by John Smith, John Rolfe, and other British people who are interested in wealth and adventure. Colony in Virginia nearly failed to survive because of disease and starvation, but succeeded because the planting of tobacco.
In 1621, a group of English people who called Pilgrim Fathers (those who fled because of ideology at odds with the church) settled in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Larger colonies built by the Puritans in Massachusetts Bay in 1630. Instead of finding gold, Pilgrims and Puritans more interested in creating a better society, which they dubbed "the city on a hill." Roger Williams, who was kicked out of Massachusetts, established a colony in Rhode Island in 1636.

Britain is not the only country that settled in what is now the United States. In the 1500s, the Spanish founded the fort in Saint Augustine, Florida. French settled in Canada and the region around the Great Lakes. The Dutch established a colony in New York, which they called Nieuw Nederland. Dimukimi other regions by the Scots-Irish, German, and Swedish.

Development of the colony is a bad thing for Native Americans. They lost their country, and many of those who died of variola, a disease that brought Europeans to America.

In the early 1700s, the emerging religious movement called the Awakening Movement. Awakening Movement is one of the first event in American history that is a "big move", or something that involves a lot of Americans. Awakening Movement, along with Salem Witch Judgement, a response to the American situation at the time, and may affect the rationale used in the American Revolution.
In 1733, there were thirteen colonies. Colonies are usually grouped into New England (New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut), Middle colonies (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware), and the South (Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia). New England had small farms, and are more reliant on fishing, shipbuilding, and small industries. Southern Colonies have tobacco and cotton plantations. The gardens were originally worked by workers who are willing to work a few years to pay the entrance to America and the ground, then by the slave. The colony was a small-sized farms, and is known to have diverse cultures and beliefs.

Thirteen colonies are bound to the "Atlantic economy", which involves the use of ships for the slave trade, tobacco, rum, sugar, gold, spices, fish, timber, and manufactured goods, between the United States, West Indies, Europe, and Africa. New York, Philadelphia, Boston, and Charleston is a city and major port at that time.

From 1754 until 1763, Britain and France engaged in a war called the Seven Years' War. England won the war. French surrender to the British colony in Canada, and gave Louisiana to Spain, Spain gave Florida to England. Furthermore, Britain issued the Proclamation of 1763, which states that people living in the thirteen colonies can not be settled in the west of the Appalachians.

Awakening Movement (The Great Awakening) was pioneered by the development of the Pietism which plagued Europe and America. This movement is described as a unique wave that also color the rise of countries colony in 1740-1742. This movement became known as the beginning of the evangelical movement. There are four periods of this revival movement. Each has a characteristic spread very rapidly, led by the evangelical pastor, gave a very sharp increase in interest in religion and had a huge impact for the guilt and forgiveness toward someone. This has resulted in the evangelical church experienced a great leap forward in terms of number and bring a new religious movements and denominations (including Baptists).

Salem Witch Punishment is punishment of persons accused of witchcraft in Essex County, Suffolk, and Middlesex, in the colony of Massachusetts in the period between February 1692 until May 1693. This event is described as the danger of religious extremism and the accusation is wrong.
American Revolution
After the Seven Years' War, colonists began to feel they do not obtain their rights. Besides the Proclamation of 1763, they felt unfairly treated because of the tax levied by the British government. Colonists declared "No taxation without representation", which means they have requested that they have a voice in the Parliament of Britain. The taxes include the Sugar Act (1764), Stamp Act (1765), Townsend Duties (1767), and the Tea Act (1773). In 1770, the Boston Tea Party event occurs. Colonists in Boston throwing hundreds of boxes of tea from ships in Boston Harbor, in response to the Tea Act. British troops then took over Boston, which resulted in the establishment of the Continental Congress, composed of leaders of all 13 colonies. Important figures in the Congress was Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, John Hancock, Roger Sherman, and John Jay.

In 1776, Thomas Paine wrote the pamphlet Common Sense, which states that the colonies should be independent from Britain. On July 4, 1776, thirteen colonies agreed on the Declaration of Independence of the United States. Colonists have been engaged in battle with the British in the American Revolutionary War. The war started in 1775 at Lexington and Concord. Although American troops under the leadership of George Washington's many defeats, they won the war after the victory at Yorktown, assisted by France. Treaty of Paris was signed, and Britain pull all its troops from the United States.

Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress adopted on July 4, 1776 stating that the Thirteen Colonies independent of Great Britain. This declaration, which is mostly written by Thomas Jefferson, explained the justification or justification to escape, and the development of Lee's Resolution dated July 2 that for the first time the U.S. declared independence. A copy of the declaration is signed by the delegates on August 2 and is currently on display at the National Archives and Records Administration in Washington, DC The Declaration is considered as one of the founding of the United States and the document dated July 4 celebrated as Independence Day.



Periode Federal 1781–1815

In 1781, the colonists prepared a Union through the Articles of Confederation, but it can only last for six years. Most of the power handed over to the states, and few possessed the power of central government. In addition, there is no president. Articles of Confederation also can not stop the Native Americans or the British at the border, and also unable to stop the rebellion as Shays Rebellion '. After Shays rebellion ', many people feel Articles of Confederation had failed.
United States Constitution was written in 1787. Figures who helped write the constitution, such as Washington, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and Gouverneur Morris, a major American thinkers of the time. Some leaders will hold an important position in the new government. This Constitution established a national government that is stronger and has three branches: executive (President and his cabinet), Legislative (House of Representatives and Senate rayat), and judicial (the federal court). The Constitution was ratified by the states in 1788.

George Washington

In 1789, Washington was elected first president. In his tenure, the Whiskey Rebellion broke out. Farmers in the countryside trying to stop collecting the tax on whiskey. In 1795, Congress approved the Jay Treaty, which opened trade with Britain. The treaty was made with the aim of improving relations with Britain. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison strongly opposed to this treaty.

In election 1796, John Adams defeated Thomas Jefferson. This election is an election between two political parties in the United States first. As president, Adams made the Army and Navy of the United States became more, but also passed a law to shut down newspapers that write bad things about him.

Jefferson defeated Adams in the election in 1800. One important thing to do as president is to buy Louisiana from France. Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark to map the Louisiana Purchase. President Jefferson also tried to stop trading with Britain and France, who was involved in the war. War erupted between the United States and Britain in 1812 when James Madison was president. This war called the War of 1812.


Expansion, industrialization, and slavery (1815-1861)

One of the problems in this period was slavery. In 1861, more than three million African-American slaves in the South. Most of the work picking cotton on large plantations. South wanted slavery to remain, while the North tried to end it.

After the War of 1812, the American experience "Era of Good Feelings" under President James Madison and James Monroe. Under Monroe, U.S. policy in North America is the Monroe Doctrine, which states that the American continents should no longer colonized by European countries. During this addition, Congress asked "American system", ie by spending funds to the banking, transportation, and communication, so that cities become larger and more factories are built. One of the major transportation project in this period is the Erie Canal in New York. In the 1840s, railways were also constructed. Thousands of miles of railway and telegraph lines had been built in the United States in 1860.

Industry in the United States is also growing. Many factories are built in the northeastern cities like Lowell, Massachusetts. Most factories produce garments. Most workers in the factory are women, and some were children of Irish and German. Despite industrialization, the livelihoods of the majority of Americans at that time were farmers.

In the early and mid-1800s, the Second Awakening Movement was launched. This movement started in New York revival movement is closely related to anti-slavery movement in the United States.

Andrew Jackson was elected president in 1828. Most supporters are poor people who have never voted before, so he gave them a job as a "gift". In addition, he also set a high import taxes that are not favored by the South. Jackson's vice president, John C. Calhoun, who came from the South, wrote that the South should stop the policy and leave the United States.
People began moving to the west of the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains at this time. The first people who moved to the West is a person who sells animal hides. In the 1840s, many people moved to Oregon, and more people move to the West after the California Gold Rush of 1849. Native Americans increasingly pressured by events such as the expulsion (the so-called Trail of Tears) and the Black Hawk War.

In 1845, Texas, who had left Mexico, joined the United States. Mexicans do not like this, and Americans want the Mexicans in the West Coast. As a result, the Mexican-American War erupted. The U.S. won this war, and acquire areas of California and the Southwestern United States. People in the North do not like this war, because they feel this war is only to benefit the South.

California Gold Rush occurred when some people go to the mountains in California to find gold, which began when James Wilson Marshall discovered gold while building a sawmill for John Sutter in 1848. Hundreds of thousands of people go to California. However, some people stay at home and open a store suppliers who equip them all with mine equipment.

Many people who become rich, but some are not. In addition to trying to find gold, some people started selling goods. Sometimes a woman can receive more than her husband's mine. People like Levi Strauss also sell goods. He invented and sells denim jeans are made of. California Gold Rush ended in 1855, which at that time, gold miners to return home because gold is getting harder and harder to find.

Mexican-American War occurred between 1846 and 1848 between the United States and Mexico. The war originated from land disputes.

This war ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. The agreement gives a lot of land to the United States from Mexico. In turn, Mexico received 15 million dollars. Outside the ground, the U.S. cut off-ngerat many states, including California, Arizona, and Utah.

Perang Saudara Amerika

Map of the division of state during the American Civil War. The blue color indicates the North Country (Union), light blue indicate members of the North Country that allows slavery, red color indicates the Confederation of American States, and white colors indicate states that did not join the American Civil War "]

In the 1840's and 1850's, North and South are less like each other because of various differences, such as:



* Northern Economics based on the industry, while based on the agrarian South.
* Northern State does not require a slave, while the South requires a slave. People in the South are also angry with such books as Uncle Tom's Cabin which states that slavery is wrong.
* North has the Republican Party, while the South has the Democratic Party.
* Differences of views on the power of the federal government.


American Civil War was a war that occurred between 1861 and 1865 in the United States (U.S.). A group of states in the south want independence, while the government and the states in the north wanted to keep the U.S. intact.

American Civil War is one of the first war that shows war armaments industry in human history. Making railroads, steamships, mass production of weapons, and various other military equipment made in man-where. The practice of total war that was developed by Sherman in Georgia and the trench warfare around Petersburg became one of the tactics used in World War I in Europe.

Map of the division of state during the American Civil War. The blue color indicates the North Country (Union), light blue indicate members of the North Country that allows slavery, red color indicates the Confederation of American States, and white colors indicate states that did not join the American Civil War

Cause

In the South, many people who became slaves of others, and most of the work in the fields done by them. While the states in the north has decided to make a law that states that no one could have / enslave others. Northern countries called the "free state" and in the southern "slave state". Moreover, most estates in the western U.S. has not been divided into states, but the territory, where non-indigenous population live. Unlike the state, territory that did not help decide who would be president and territories did not send representatives to Washington, DC to make laws across the country. Many white people who moved there and everyone agrees that one day all the territory it should be called the state. In the north, people want the states that became independent states. In the south, people want to be a slave state.

Abraham Lincoln comes from the north and as he raced for the presidency, he said that all the states that will be a free state even though he did not plan sent every slave in the slave states. The owners of slaves in the south is also the fear of some people who say they want to make it a crime to have slaves in all parts of the United States. Many people in the north who live in cities and worked in a factory and they want a policy that helps the economy. But many people in the south who live in small towns and work in agriculture, and wants policies that support its economy. They often can not agree on the best decision.

When Lincoln won the election and become the new president, many slave states that the U.S. broke away and formed a new nation, America Confederate States, the capital in Richmond, Virginia.

On February 4, 1861, before Lincoln to the office, seven states have declared to join the Union. The situation pointed to the March 4 and a small rebellion began to emerge. By the end of 1861, Missouri and Kentucky were divided, Pro-South (Konfenderasi) and Pro-North (Union / Government)

There are 23 states loyal to the Union during the war, namely: California, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentuky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Wisconsin.

While seven states are members of Confederation, namely: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. In this civil war, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina followed to join the Confederacy. To face the battle, Confederate states formed Confederate Army.

There are two important areas where the war took place, in the western and eastern.

In the east, there is the U.S. capital, Washington, District of Columbia, and the Confederate capital at Richmond. Both the city is only 90 miles. In this area, Confederate military leader is Robert E. Lee. Lee is a genius and a lot of generals who won battles, including the Battle of Bull Run First and Second Battle of Bull Run and managed to push the Union troops retreated, until successfully inhibited by Union troops in the Battle of Antietam. However, the Battle of Gettysburglah which is the turning point of this war. Battle of Gettysburg many casualties, both Union and Confederate, but the number of Confederate troops less than Union troops, sehinnga apparent losses are in the Confederacy. Since the war, the Confederacy almost never again launch an attack.

In the west, the Mississippi River region. In this region, Confederate forces suffered many defeats. Union troops led by Ulysses Grant (who later became U.S. President) won many battles here. Union forces occupied nearly all the towns in the Mississippi River, but the Confederacy still held Vicksburg. On July 4, 1863, Vicksburg finally surrendered to Ulysses. It divided the Confederacy into two parts and open the way to attack the heart of the defense of the Confederacy.

Lincoln decided that Ulysses is his best generals. He picked up Ulysses as generals in the east. Grant attacked Lee back in the Appomattox operations. Lee realized his army was outnumbered and he finally surrendered to Grant on April 9, 1985. Lee's surrender marked the destruction of the Confederate states.

Victory for Union Confederation in addition to ending the country, also end the practice of slavery in the United States, and strengthen the position of the federal government. Social issues, political, economic, and racial after the war successfully completed in 1877.

Battle of Antietam, also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg in the Southern United States, occurred on 17 September 1862 near Sharpsburg, Maryland. This battle is a major battle in the United States North. Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest battle day in U.S. history, about 23 thousand soldiers were killed in this incident. Although tactically did not finish because of Robert Edward Lee of the Confederate State of America withdrew its troops to Virginia, this war is enough to give victory to the North so that Abraham Lincoln declared the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863.

Battle of Gettysburg (1-3 July 1863), occurred around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign, is the battle with the largest number of casualties on the American Civil War and is considered the turning point of war. The Union had won this battle against the Confederacy.

Appomattox military operations (29 March 1865-9 April 1865) is a series of battles in Virginia that ended with the surrender of the army of Northern Virginia under the command of Confederate General Robert E. Lee and marks the completion of the American Civil War.

Since June 1864, Union troops under the command of Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant had surrounded Lee's army in the town of Petersburg, Virginia. Both sides spent the winter in a series of trenches in the area which covers almost 56 km. After a long winter, Grant urged little by little to the west, the Confederate army widens the defensive line. But they lack the warrior, a kilometer perimeter defended by only about 625 soldiers. Lee knew that his troops could not survive continuous, and wanted to get out of the siege when spring arrives, when the rain stopped and the roads impassable.

Appomattox military operation was preceded by the Battle of Fort Stedman March 25, 1865 that a final battle at the Siege of Petersburg. General Lee's last attempt to break through the cordon of Lieutenant General Grant at Petersburg resulted in a large number of Confederate casualties. Grant Lee tried to prevent that will immediately grab the only South Side Railway lines Confederate supplies. If it was taken Grant, Confederate Army would lose.

Lee was recently appointed as commander of all Confederate soldiers. For nearly three years, his post was commander of Northern Virginia. After the escape from the siege at Petersburg, Lee plans to resign to the southwest, supplying military supplies in Lynchburg, Virginia, and head south. There, the Army of Virginia might be able to join forces with Gen. Joseph E. Johnston in North Carolina. Lee hopes to defeat the Union troops under the command of Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman's troops fought against Johnston. Then together the troops Johnston, Lee Grant's forces planned to strike back. in an attempt to break the siege, Lee moved his troops to the front line right wing.

Meanwhile, Grant had more troops. Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan had returned from the Shenandoah Valley. Soldiers under the command of Major General James Edward Ord joined at the forefront of Petersburg, so that the troops under the command of Maj. Gen. Gouverneur K. Warren and Andrew A. Humphreys could be preparing to attack Lee's army.
Reconstruction and the Gilded Age
Lincoln was re-elected as president in 1864. However, when attending a play at Ford's Theatre, Washington, DC, he was shot by John Wilkes Booth. Lincoln became the first American president who was murdered. He was succeeded by Andrew Johnson.

At this time, amendments to the 13, 14, and 15 approved. So the slaves freed and became a citizen. They also have voting rights. Congress at that time was dominated by "Radical Republicans", who wanted to punish the South after the Civil War. They do not like Johnson and nearly stopping his post. They also sent many troops to the South and South forced approve an amendment to the 14 and 15. South do not like this, and make laws "Jim Crow" that puts black people in the roles of low and force them to work as a poor farmer. Whites in the South also founded the Ku Klux Klan attacked the black people.

United States visited by immigrants from various countries, like Ireland, Italy, Germany, Eastern Europe, and China. Most of them work in large factories and living in big cities, like New York City, Chicago, and Boston. They usually inhabit a small apartment, poor, and close together. Immigrants are often used as a "political machine". They were given jobs and money, in exchange for votes in elections.

"Political machines" have been ruling in the last decade of the 19th century. Most of the elected president because of the political machine. Large business owners often have more power than the government. An example is John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and J.P. Morgan.

Transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869. The line was to help ease transportation in the United States. Chicago, where the paths meet, a trade center between East and West.

The period of progressivism and imperialism

At the end of the 19th century and early 20th-century, the United States to become more active in foreign affairs. In 1898, the United States to war against Spain. The U.S. won the war, and mastering Puerto Rico, Guam, Guantanamo, and the Philippines. Coupled with the purchase of Alaska and Hawaii takeover, the United States has acquired the entire region today, plus some areas that will be pulled out after World War II.

In 1901, Theodore Roosevelt became president of the United States. He has a foreign policy called "Big Stick". The point is that [the U.S.] should have a large navy and conduct oversight of Latin America. Between 1900 and 1930, the United States several times to send troops to Latin America. When Theodore Roosevelt was in office, digging the Panama Canal begins.

Woodrow Wilson was elected president in 1912. He is a progressive, but not entirely similar to Roosevelt.

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